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Introduction

The purpose of this document is to simplify some of the terms, descriptions, and mechanisms of the GStreamer core. It will, initially, serve as a foundation to help model and test the GStreamer implementation in the RDK/HAL system.

Gstreamer

This document describe the details of the following,

  • API for multimedia applications
  • Plugin architecture
  • Pipeline architecture
  • Mechanism for media type handling, negotiation, synchronization

Performance

  • Data passing between plugins is lightweight (pointers reduce overhead)
  • Shared memory mechanism
  • Sub-buffers split buffers into manageable pieces (blocking)
  • Dedicated streaming threads with scheduling handled by the kernel

Plugin

  • Protocol handler (loaded at runtime)
  • Sources: audio/video (protocol plugins)
  • Formats: parsers, formaters, muxers, demuxers, metadata, subtitles
  • Codecs: coders/decoders
  • Filters: converters, mixers, effects
  • Sinks: audio/video (protocol plugins)

Object Model

  • Adheres to GObject (Glib 2.0)
  • Uses signals and object properties

Architecture

GStreamer Architecture

GST-Element

  • Has one specific function (read, decode, ...)
  • Has two Pads:
    1. source (output)
    2. sink (input)
  • GStreamer core views elements as blocks of bytes
  • Linked or chained elements create a pipeline that performs a specific task

GST Element Link

GST-Element Pad

Is defined by two properties:

  1. direction: source, sink
  2. availability: always, sometimes (dynamic), on request

ghost pad: a pad from some element in the bin that can be accessed directly from the bin as well.

GST-Bin

  • A container for a collection of elements (manages the state of all elements within it)
  • Forwards bus messages from contained elements (errors, tags, EOS)
  • Simplifies implementing complex pipelines by allowing the break up of the pipeline into smaller blocks

GST-Pipeline

  • A top-level bin
  • A generic container that manages the synchronization and bus messages of the contained elements.
  • Contains a bus by default

GST-Bus

  • A bus is a simple system that forwards messages from the streaming thread to an application in its own thread context.

GST-Bus Message Types

All messages contain a message source, type, and time-stamp.

  • Error: fatal message that terminate data-passing
  • Warning: non-fatal message, but user-visible problems will happen
  • Information: non-problem notification
  • End of Stream: emitted when the stream had ended
  • Tags: emitted when metadata is found in the stream
  • State-changes: emitted after a successful state change
  • Buffering: emitted during caching of network-streams
  • Element: special messages that are unique to certain elements and usually represent additional features.
  • Application-specific: primarily meant for internal use in applications in case the application needs to marshal information from some thread into the main thread

GST Communication Mechanisms

  1. Buffer: objects for passing streaming data between elements in pipeline
    1. travel downstream
  2. Events: objects sent between elements or from the application to elements
    1. travel downstream and upstream
  3. Messages: objects posted by elements on pipeline’s message bus (element to application)
    1. handled synchronously from pipeline to bus; asynchronously from bus to application
  4. Queries: allow applications to request information from pipeline
    1. travel downstream and upstream; always handled synchronously

Communication Control Flow

  1. Downstream : src element to sink element
  2. Upstream: sink element to src element

Communication Control Flow

Buffer

Actual media data.

A simple buffer consists of:

  • Pointers to memory objects.
  • Timestamp
  • Reference count
  • Flags

Events

Control information.

Messages

Information on elements or pipeline.

A message consist of:

  • Source
  • Type
  • Timestamp

Queries

Request for a specific stream property related to progress tracking.


GST-Element Types

  1. Source: generates data
  2. Filter: performs task on input data to send proper output data (convertors, demuxers, muxers, codecs etc)
  3. Sink: receives data

These 3 types of elements create a simple GST-Pipeline.

pipeline

Pipelining is an implementation technique whereby multiple instructions are overlapped in execution; it takes advantage of parallelism that exists among the actions needed to execute an instruction. 

GST-Element States

  1. GST_STATE_NULL: default state; no resources are allocated in this state
  2. GST_STATE_READY: an element has allocated all of its global resources within the stream, but the stream is NOT open yet.
  3. GST_STATE_PAUSED: an element has opened the stream, but no actively processing it. (clock does NOT run)
  4. GST_STATE_PLAYING: an element maintains the open stream while processing it. (clock starts)

Porting

The following is a list of components that might be needed to properly test implementation of the HAL GST components

  1. aesdecyrpt
  2. aesencrypt
  3. dtcpdecrypt
  4. dtcpencrypt
  5. httpsink
  6. rbifilter


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